, In the United States, the Great Depression led to a new style for government buildings, sometimes called PWA Moderne, for the Public Works Administration, which launched gigantic construction programs in the U.S. to stimulate employment. The years immediately after the war saw the development of radical experimental houses, including the enameled-steel Lustron house (1947–1950), and Buckminster Fuller's experimental aluminum Dymaxion House.. Neutra scaled the house to the physical dimensions of its owner, a small woman. The group met once more in Paris in 1937 to discuss public housing and was scheduled to meet in the United States in 1939, but the meeting was cancelled because of the war. , The Bauhaus Dessau building, designed by Walter Gropius (1926), ADGB Trade Union School by Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer (1928-30), Haus am Horn, Weimar by Georg Muche (1923), The Barcelona Pavilion (modern reconstruction) by Ludwig Mies van der Rohe (1929), The Weissenhof Estate in Stuttgart, built by the German Werkbund (1927). Framed buildings. In 1920 he co-founded a journal called 'L'Espirit Nouveau and energetically promoted architecture that was functional, pure, and free of any decoration or historical associations. Other major works included Farnsworth House in Plano, Illinois (1945–1951), a simple horizontal glass box that had an enormous influence on American residential architecture. It was supposed to be built of reinforced concrete, but because of technical problems it was finally built of traditional materials covered with plaster. Hybrid concrete construction combines all the benefits of precasting with the advantages of cast in-situ construction. If you would like to receive this information, please enter your email address and we will subscribe you to our e-news list. An elegant white box wrapped with a ribbon of glass windows around on the facade, with living space that opened upon an interior garden and countryside around, raised up by a row of white pylons in the center of a large lawn, it became an icon of modernist architecture. While these buildings were revolutionary in their steel frames and height, their decoration was borrowed from Neo-Renaissance, Neo-Gothic and Beaux-Arts architecture. The Austrian architect Rudolph Schindler designed what could be called the first house in the modern style in 1922, the Schindler house. The five concrete shells of the structure resemble seashells by the beach. Unité d'Habitation became a prototype for similar buildings in other cities, both in France and Germany. As of 2006, about 7.5 billion cubic meters of concrete are made each year, more than one cubic meter for every person on Earth. Modern Architecture depended on utilizing novel construction techniques and materials like reinforced concrete, steel, and glass. It was built of inexpensive material–wood, plaster, and glass–and completed at a cost of just under $18,000. In 1948 he conceived the idea of a monument in St. Louis, Missouri in the form of a parabolic arch 192 meters high, made of stainless steel (1948).  The iron frame construction of the Eiffel Tower, then the tallest structure in the world, captured the imagination of millions of visitors to the 1889 Paris Universal Exposition. The interior was decorated with paintings by Gustav Klimt and other artists, and the architect even designed clothing for the family to match the architecture. The Convent, built of raw concrete, was austere and without ornament, inspired by the medieval monasteries he had visited on his first trip to Italy. Expressionism, which appeared in Germany between 1910 and 1925, was a counter-movement against the strictly functional architecture of the Bauhaus and Werkbund. 3D Volumetric construction (also known as modular construction) involves the production of three-dimensional units in controlled factory conditions prior to transportation to site. , Home Insurance Building in Chicago by William Le Baron Jenney (1883), Prudential (Guaranty) Building by Louis Sullivan in Buffalo, New York (1896), The Flatiron Building in New York City (1903), The Carson, Pirie, Scott and Company Building in Chicago by Louis Sullivan (1904–1906).  The one modernist who did attract attention was a collaborator of Le Corbusier, Josep Lluis Sert, the Spanish architect, whose pavilion of the Second Spanish Republic was pure modernist glass and steel box. He is known for the sculptural qualities of his buildings, and their relationship with the landscape. While Gropius was active at the Bauhaus, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe led the modernist architectural movement in Berlin. Instead the delegates held their meeting on a cruise ship traveling between Marseille and Athens. As to the modernists, Le Corbusier was practically, but not quite invisible at the Exposition; he participated in the Pavilion des temps nouveaux, but focused mainly on his painting. Between 1928 and 1935, he built only two buildings: a hotel near Chandler, Arizona, and the most famous of all his residences, Fallingwater (1934–37), a vacation house in Pennsylvania for Edgar J. Kaufman. Soviet architects began to construct workers' clubs, communal apartment houses, and communal kitchens for feeding whole neighborhoods. Reconstruction of the Pavilion of the Second Spanish Republic by Josep Lluis Sert (1937) displayed Picasso's painting Guernica (1937), The Zeppelinfield stadium in Nuremberg, Germany (1934), built by Albert Speer for Nazi Party rallies, The Casa del Fascio (House of Fascism) in Como, Italy, by Giuseppe Terragni (1932–1936), Palais de Tokyo, Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris.
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