william shakespeare

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As a longtime champion of protective tariffs, the Republican McKinley ran on a platform of promoting American prosperity and won a landslide victory over Democrat ...read more, The political and religious leader Roger Williams (c. 1603?-1683) is best known for founding the state of Rhode Island and advocating separation of church and state in Colonial America. His father John was the son of a farmer who became a successful tradesman; his mother Mary Arden was gentry. [270][271][272] In 1606, the name of William's daughter Susanna appears on a list of those who failed to attend Easter communion in Stratford. John and Mary lost two daughters as infants, so William became their eldest child. [44] Boehrer comments that, Shakespeare had established himself in Stratford as the keeper of a great house, the owner of large gardens and granaries, a man with generous stores of barley which one could purchase, at need, for a price. He is also the founder of the first Baptist church in America. [249] Two plays not included in the First Folio, The Two Noble Kinsmen and Pericles, Prince of Tyre, are now accepted as part of the canon, with today's scholars agreeing that Shakespeare made major contributions to the writing of both. [34], Though Shakespeare is known today primarily as a playwright and poet, his main occupation was as a player and sharer in an acting troupe. By the end of their studies at age 14, grammar school pupils were quite familiar with the great Latin authors, and with Latin drama and rhetoric. His works span tragedy, comedy, and historical works, both in poetry and prose. [155], It is not clear for which companies Shakespeare wrote his early plays. According to one 17th-century account, he fled his hometown after poaching deer from a local politician’s estate.

[166] The popular comic actor Will Kempe played the servant Peter in Romeo and Juliet and Dogberry in Much Ado About Nothing, among other characters.

This story, This strength of design ensures that a Shakespeare play can survive translation, cutting and wide interpretation without loss to its core drama. [116][117] Like The Two Gentlemen of Verona, in which two friends appear to approve of rape,[118][119][120] the Shrew's story of the taming of a woman's independent spirit by a man sometimes troubles modern critics, directors, and audiences. [167][168] He was replaced around 1600 by Robert Armin, who played roles such as Touchstone in As You Like It and the fool in King Lear. Also remembered for his non-dramatic contributions, Shakespeare published his first narrative poem—the erotic “Venus and Adonis,” intriguingly dedicated to his close friend Henry Wriothesley, Earl of Southampton—while London theaters were closed due to a plague outbreak in 1593. How Shakespeare spent the next eight years or so, until his name begins to appear in London theatre records, is not known. poets on history, along with Emily Dickinson, Robert Frost, and Walt Whitman. Susanna had married a physician, John Hall, in 1607,[86] and Judith had married Thomas Quiney, a vintner, two months before Shakespeare's death. Stratford enjoyed a grammar school of good quality, and the education there was free, the schoolmaster’s salary being paid by the borough. [178], In 1593 and 1594, when the theatres were closed because of plague, Shakespeare published two narrative poems on sexual themes, Venus and Adonis and The Rape of Lucrece. [256][257][258], Around 230 years after Shakespeare's death, doubts began to be expressed about the authorship of the works attributed to him.

[69] In 1612, he was called as a witness in Bellott v Mountjoy, a court case concerning the marriage settlement of Mountjoy's daughter, Mary. ", † = Not published in the Beaumont and Fletcher folios, The "national cult" of Shakespeare, and the "bard" identification, dates from September 1769, when the actor, Individual play dates and precise writing span are unknown. Between the mid-1590s and his retirement around 1612, Shakespeare penned the most famous of his 37-plus plays, including “Romeo and Juliet,” “A Midsummer Night’s Dream,” “Hamlet,” “King Lear,” “Macbeth” and “The Tempest.” As a dramatist, he is known for his frequent use of iambic pentameter, meditative soliloquies (such as Hamlet’s ubiquitous “To be, or not to be” speech) and ingenious wordplay. In 1596, the year before he bought New Place as his family home in Stratford, Shakespeare was living in the parish of St. Helen's, Bishopsgate, north of the River Thames. The empty vessel makes the loudest sound.". [107], The first recorded works of Shakespeare are Richard III and the three parts of Henry VI, written in the early 1590s during a vogue for historical drama.

[64][65] He moved across the river to Southwark by 1599, the same year his company constructed the Globe Theatre there. The couple married around 1557 and lived on Henley Street when Shakespeare was born, purportedly in a house now known as Shakespeare's Birthplace. He is often called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon". [21], Shakespeare is unique among his contemporaries in the extent of figurative language derived from country life and nature. [35][36], Certainly Shakespeare had many opportunities to see professional playing companies in his youth. [11][12][d] His early plays were primarily comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres. William was the third of eight Shakespeare children, of whom three died in childhood. from historical subjects to a more playful side and then, finally, into plays where plots would result in a sense of forgiveness and serenity, Shakespeare's evolution as both a man and a
He wrote them in a stylised language that does not always spring naturally from the needs of the characters or the drama. He is a writer of great intellectual rapidity, perceptiveness, and poetic power. In 1612 he was called as a witness in the Bellott v. Mountjoy case. Schoenbaum concludes that "any attempt to interpret the passage is guesswork, and no more". Shakespeare combined the two throughout his career, with Romeo and Juliet perhaps the best example of the mixing of the styles.

[60] In 1709, Rowe passed down a tradition that Shakespeare played the ghost of Hamlet's father. In 1985 E.A.J Honigmann proposed that Shakespeare acted as a schoolmaster in Lancashire,[32] on the evidence found in the 1581 will of a member of the Houghton family, referring to plays and play-clothes and asking his kinsman Thomas Hesketh to take care of "William Shakeshaft, now dwelling with me". The earliest play that is directly attributed to Shakespeare is the trilogy of "King Henry VI," with Richard III also being written around the same time, between 1589 and 1591. After Queen Among those who championed him were the writers Voltaire, Goethe, Stendhal, and Victor Hugo.

4 November 1646), Anne (bap. The American novelist Herman Melville's soliloquies owe much to Shakespeare; his Captain Ahab in Moby-Dick is a classic tragic hero, inspired by King Lear. Shakespeare's will uses a Protestant formula, and he was a confirmed member of the Church of England, where he was married, his children were baptised, and where he is buried. "[213], Shakespeare influenced novelists such as Thomas Hardy, William Faulkner, and Charles Dickens. No writer’s living reputation can compare to that of Shakespeare, whose notable plays included the tragedies Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, and Othello. [273][274], Few details of Shakespeare's sexuality are known. An ardent ...read more, William McKinley served in the U.S. Congress and as governor of Ohio before running for the presidency in 1896.
William Shakespeare (bapt. The differences may stem from copying or printing errors, from notes by actors or audience members, or from Shakespeare's own papers. [216] The psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud drew on Shakespearean psychology, in particular, that of Hamlet, for his theories of human nature. [210] Until Romeo and Juliet, for example, romance had not been viewed as a worthy topic for tragedy. [99][100] The epitaph carved into the stone slab covering his grave includes a curse against moving his bones, which was carefully avoided during restoration of the church in 2008:[101], Good frend for Iesvs sake forbeare, His last major tragedies, Antony and Cleopatra and Coriolanus, contain some of Shakespeare's finest poetry and were considered his most successful tragedies by the poet and critic T. S.

There is some dispute about how many plays Shakespeare wrote. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. [2][3][4] In the last phase of his life, he wrote tragicomedies (also known as romances) and collaborated with other playwrights. Shakespeare was likely affiliated with several different theater companies when these early works debuted on the London stage. [172] No evidence suggests that Shakespeare approved these editions, which the First Folio describes as "stol'n and surreptitious copies". The 1616 edition of Ben Jonson's Works names him on the cast lists for Every Man in His Humour (1598) and Sejanus His Fall (1603). [45] The italicised phrase parodying the line "Oh, tiger's heart wrapped in a woman's hide" from Shakespeare's Henry VI, Part 3, along with the pun "Shake-scene", clearly identify Shakespeare as Greene's target. Shakespeare is also supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. )[39], By late 1594, Shakespeare was part-owner of a playing company, known as the Lord Chamberlain's Men—like others of the period, the company took its name from its aristocratic sponsor, in this case the Lord Chamberlain. Some of the most deeply affecting productions of Shakespeare have been non-English, and non-European. In this era, which is acknowledged as the playwright's best era, he wrote the works Most of Shakespeare's greatest post-1599 plays were written for the Globe, including Hamlet, Othello, and King Lear. [76][77] In March 1613, he bought a gatehouse in the former Blackfriars priory;[78] and from November 1614, he was in London for several weeks with his son-in-law, John Hall. There is good evidence to associate her with a family of Hathaways who inhabited a beautiful farmhouse, now much visited, 2 miles [3.2 km] from Stratford.) Even his earliest works evince knowledge of European affairs and foreign countries, familiarity with the royal court and general erudition that might seem unattainable to a young man raised in the provinces by parents who were probably illiterate. [190], The 1609 edition was dedicated to a "Mr. Records survive relating to William Shakespeare’s family. There are no direct descendants from Shakespeare's line, as both daughters had World authority on Shakespeare. Speculators were acquiring excess quantities in the hope of profiting from scarcity. At the age of 18 he married Anne Hathaway with whom he had three children. The parish register of Holy Trinity Church in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire, shows that he was baptized there on April 26, 1564; his birthday is traditionally celebrated on April 23. Shakespeare was enlisted as a go-between, to help negotiate the details of the dowry. Though no records of his education survive, it is likely that he attended the well-regarded local grammar school, where he would have studied Latin grammar and classics. [citation needed], By the early 17th century, Shakespeare had become very prosperous. He increasingly tuned his metaphors and images to the needs of the drama itself. [54][55] A year later he was back in London to make the Gatehouse purchase.

He was one of eight children and lived to be the eldest surviving

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