what is a conductor science

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At extremely low temperatures, some metals will conduct electricity better than any known substance at room temperature.

In science, a conductor is a material that permits a flow of energy.A material that allows the flow of charged particles is an electrical conductor. An increase in temperature will also increase the number of phonons generated within the material.

Such an expansion (or contraction) will change the geometry of the conductor and therefore its characteristic resistance. Everything you need to know, PCI DSS (Payment Card Industry Data Security Standard), Federal Information Security Management Act (FISMA), CISO as a service (vCISO, virtual CISO, fractional CISO), HIPAA (Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act), What is a SAN? VDI explained, cloud application performance management (cloud APM), protected health information (PHI) or personal health information, What is edge computing? If the resulting electric current is in a different direction from the applied electric field, the material is said to be an anisotropic electrical conductor. In many countries, the size is expressed in square millimetres.

However, it is used in specialized equipment, such as satellites, and as a thin plating to mitigate skin effect losses at high frequencies. However, if a sample of gas contains a significant number of ions, it can act as a fair conductor. Mathematical descriptions of the electromagnetic field, Electrical resistivity and conductivity § Resistivity of various materials, Classification of materials based on permittivity, BBC: Key Stage 2 Bitesize: Electrical Conductors, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Electrical_conductor&oldid=980917183, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 September 2020, at 07:04. Oils are hydrocarbons, since carbon has the property of tetracovalency and forms covalent bonds with other elements such as hydrogen, since it does not lose or gain electrons, thus does not form ions. Do Not Sell My Personal Info, The substance which easily to allow large scaler flow of electric charge through them are called conductor, I loved this so I could check what is the meaning because science is hard. Silicon, germanium, and various metal oxides are examples of semiconductor materials. However, this formula still provides a good approximation for long thin conductors such as wires. σ Much like the shaking of a pinball machine, phonons serve to disrupt the path of electrons, causing them to scatter. Artificial intelligence - machine learning, Circuit switched services equipment and providers, Business intelligence - business analytics. In physics and electrical engineering, a conductor is an object or type of material that allows the flow of charge (electrical current) in one or more directions. So the liquid (oil or any organic compound) cannot conduct electricity. Then, the geometrical cross-section is different from the effective cross-section in which current actually flows, so the resistance is higher than expected. ρ

In electrical and electronic systems, all conductors comprise solid metals molded into wires or etched onto circuit boards. Copper, steel, gold, aluminum, and brass are also good conductors. The ampacity of a conductor, that is, the amount of current it can carry, is related to its electrical resistance: a lower-resistance conductor can carry a larger value of current.
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Famously, 14,700 short tons (13,300 t) of silver on loan from the United States Treasury were used in the making of the calutron magnets during World War II due to wartime shortages of copper. At commercial power frequency, these effects are significant for large conductors carrying large currents, such as busbars in an electrical substation,[2] or large power cables carrying more than a few hundred amperes. Other, more expensive insulation such as Teflon or fiberglass may allow operation at much higher temperatures. Wires are measured by their cross sectional area. If high conductivity copper must be welded or brazed or used in a reducing atmosphere, then oxygen-free high conductivity copper (CW008A or ASTM designation C10100) may be used. The resistance, in turn, is determined by the material the conductor is made from (as described above) and the conductor's size. This formula is not exact: It assumes the current density is totally uniform in the conductor, which is not always true in practical situation.

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